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تعتبر جامعة موسكو من أعرق الجامعات الروسية والعالمية .أسست جامعة موسكو عام 1755 م
الشهادات الممنوحة من جامعة موسكو معترف بها فى الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية ودول أوربا كافة وفى الدول العربية كذلك
يدرس فى الوقت الحالى فى هذه الجامعة حوالى 7000 طالب دراسات عليا وعدد 40000 أربعين ألف طالب فى كليات الجامعة المختلفة كذلك عدد 5000 متخصص وباحث
يحاضر فى هذه الجامعة أربعة آلاف بروفيسور ومحاضر بالإضافة الى خمسة آلاف باحث يعملون فى كليات ومعاهد البحث التابعة للجامعة
كذلك بها عدد 15000 موظف يعملون فى مجالات كشؤون الطلاب والأمن والنظافة
كل عام يلتحق بجامعة موسكو عدد 2000 طالب أجنبى للدراسة فقط فى جامعة موسكو
تتكون جامعة موسكو من 600 مبنى خاصة بالكليات والمعامل الذى تتخطى فى اجمال مساحتها مليون متر مكعب
One of the oldest Russian institutions of higher education, Moscow University was established in 1755. In 1940 it was named after Academician Mikhail Lomonosov (1711 - 1765), an outstanding Russian scientist, who greatly contributed to the establishment of the university in Moscow.
Mikhail Lomonosov was one of the intellectual titans of XVIII century. The great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin described him as a person of formidable willpower and keen scientific mind, whose lifelong passion was learning. Lomonosov's interests ranged from history, rhetoric, art and poetry to mechanics, chemistry, mineralogy. His activity is a manifestation of the enormous potential of the Russian scientific community whose representatives occupied the leading positions in the world at the time. Peter I reformed Russia, which allowed the country reach the standard of the contemporary European powers in many spheres. Great importance was placed on education. In 1724 the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, founded by Peter I, established a university and a grammar school to educate intellectuals and researchers the country needed; however, these educational establishments did not fulfill the task they took on. It was Michail Lomonosov who suggested, in his letter to Count Shuvalov, the idea of establishing a university in Moscow. An influential courtier and the favourite of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna, Count Shuvalov was the patron of the arts and science; he supported Lomonosov's plans for a new university and presented them to the Empress.
In 1755, on 25 January, St. Tatiana's Day according to the Russian Orthodox Church calendar, Empress Elizaveta Petrovna signed the decree that a university should be founded in Moscow. The opening ceremony took place on 26 April, when Elizaveta Petrovna's coronation day was celebrated. Since 1755 25 January and 26 April are marked by special events and festivities at Moscow University; the annual conference where students present the results of their research work is traditionally held in April.
According to Lomonosov's plan, there were originally three faculties. First all the students acquired a comprehensive knowledge in the field of science and humanities at the Faculty of Philosophy; then they could specialize and continue at the faculty of philosophy or join either the Law Faculty or The Faculty of Medicine. Lectures were delivered either in Latin, the language of educated people at the time, or in Russian. Unlike European Universities, Moscow University did not have the Faculty of Theology, since in Russia there were special theological education establishments.
From the very beginning elitism was alien to the very spirit of the University community, which determined Moscow University's long-standing democratic tradition. The Decree Elizaveta Petrovna signed stated in its preamble that the university was to educate commoners; only serfs were not admitted. Lomonosov himself pointed out that in European universities it was the academic achievements of a student that mattered, not his social position or family background. In the late part of XVIII century there were only three noblemen among the 26 professors at Moscow University, most of the students were commoners too. The best students were sent to continue their education abroad, establishing the contacts with the international scientific community.
Originally tuition at Moscow University was free for all students, later only poor students were exempt from tuition fees. The state funding did not cover all the University expenses; thus the administration had to find ways to raise additional funds. The University was partly funded by its patrons, such as the rich merchants of the Demidov and Stroganov families and some others, who donated laboratory equipment, books, various collections and established scholarships for University students. University alumni supported their alma mater through hard times raising money by public subscriptions. University professors traditionally bequeathed to the University library their private book collections, the largest among them were those collected by I.M.Snegirev, P.Ya.Petrov, T.N.Granovsky, S.M.Soloviev, F.I.Buslaev, N.K.Gudzy, I.G.Petrovsky and some others.
Moscow University played an outstanding role in popularizing science and learning in Russia making the lectures of its professors open to the public. Book publishing in Russia started in 1756, when a printing house and a bookshop were opened on campus; printing one of the first Russian newspapers “Moskovskie Vedomosti” (Moscow Gazette) started there. The first literary periodical in Moscow “Poleznoe Uveselenie” (Useful Entertainment) was also printed at the University printing house since 1760. N.I.Novikov, one of the outstanding figures of the Enlightenment in Russia, was at the head of the University publishers from 1779 to 1789.
For over a century, since 1756, the University library was the only one opened for the general public in Moscow.
Professors of Moscow University greatly contributed to establishing new cultural centres in Moscow and Russia, the grammar school and later a university in Kazan, The Academy of the Fine Arts in St. Petersburg, the Maly Theatre in Moscow, to name just a few. In XIX century the first scientific societies appeared at the University, those uniting naturalists, historians and philologists.
XVIII century saw a number of outstanding figures among the students and professors of Moscow University: philosophers N.N.Popovsky, D.S. Anichkov, mathematicians V.K. Arshenevsky, M.I.Pankevitch, medical doctor S.Z.Zybelin, botanist P.D.Veniaminov, physicist P.I.Strakhov, soil scientists M.I.Afonin and N.E.Cherepanov, H. A. Chebotarev, historian and geographer, historian N.N. Bantysh-Kamenetsky, A.A.Barsov, S. Khalfin and E.I.Kostrov who were philologists and translators; lawyers S.E.Desnitsky and I.A.Tretiakov, well-known authors D.I. Fonvisin, M.M. Kheraskov, and N.I. Novikov, architects V.I.Bazhenov and I.E.Starov. Their work greatly contributed to Moscow University's becoming the educational, scientific and cultural centre of Russia.
XVIII century saw a number of outstanding figures among the students and professors of Moscow University: philosophers N.N.Popovsky, D.S.Anichkov, mathematicians V.K.Arshenevsky, M.I.Pankevitch, medical doctor S.Z.Zybelin, botanist P.D.Veniaminov, physicist P.I.Strakhov, soil scientists M.I.Afonin and N.E.Cherepanov, H.A.Chebotarev, historian and geographer, historian N.N.Bantysh-Kamenetsky, A.A.Barsov, S.Khalfin and E.I.Kostrov who were philologists and translators; lawyers S.E.Desnitsky and I.A.Tretiakov, well-known authors D.I.Fonvisin, M.M.Kheraskov, and N.I.Novikov, architects V.I.Bazhenov and I.E.Starov. Their work greatly contributed to Moscow University's becoming the educational, scientific and cultural centre of Russia.
Initially governed according to "The Imperial Decree on the Establishment of Moscow University", in 1804 Moscow University was granted a charter and thus considerable independence. According to the Charter the Rector and Deans of the faculties were elected by the professors; the first Rector-elect became H.A.Chebotarev, Professor of History and Philology. The University governing body was the Board of Professors; they also awarded degrees. The publications approved by the Board and printed by the University publishing house were exempt from censorship. There were four divisions within Moscow University in the early XIX century: the Department of Moral and Political Science, the Department of Physics and Mathematics, the Department of Medicine, the Department of Philology. The course of university education took three years, after final examinations the best graduates were awarded candidate's degrees. According to the 1804 Charter the University controlled the secondary and elementary schools in the central provinces of Russia, which contributed to continuity in the programmes of educational establishments at all levels.
The invasion of the French Army led by Napoleon caused a wave of patriotism among the University students, many of them joined the volunteer corps in 1812. M.I.Kutuzov, who led the Russian Army, specially mentioned selfless work of the University medical professors and students.
The invasion of the French Army led by Napoleon caused a wave of patriotism among the University students, many of them joined the volunteer corps in 1812. M.I.Kutuzov, who led the Russian Army, specially mentioned selfless work of the University medical professors and students.
The University buildings were burned down during the French occupation, the library, archives, museum and all the equipment were destroyed. After the war it was the joint effort of all educated people in Russia that made the restoration of the University possible: books, ancient manuscripts, all kinds of collections, equipment and financial aid came from research laboratories and scientists, there were donations from private citizens too. Thus 7,500 books had been collected for the University library by 1815. In spite of the difficult conditions, the academic year at Moscow University started on 1 September, 1813; in 1820s the total number of students exceeded 500.
In the early XIX century Moscow University attracted free-thinking people who discussed the future of Russia. It was often a real battle of wits between the supporters of Western ideas and those who thought Russia had its own unique way of development. In 1840s public lectures, delivered by T.N.Granovsky, were attended by all Moscow intellectuals. Moscow University was a melting pot, where young people form the various strata of the society met and overcame their social prejudices; it was at the University that the traditions of fraternity were supported and cultivated. University alumni brought the most advanced ideas with them when they left their alma mater.
The work of the University publishers was not limited to only scientific publications, they were the first to publish " Sonnets" by A.Mitskevich and I.C.Turgenev's prose.
Abolishing serfdom in Russia in 1861 was a turning point in the history of the country. In the history of Moscow University a period of reforms started too. The 1863 University Charter set new standards and requirements: the demand for highly qualified specialists in the field of industry, agriculture, commerce was growing; the country needed well-educated government officials, lawyers and military men. The new Charter widened the range of the subjects in the curriculum, which included more seminars and laboratory experiments. The number of professors and instructors increased. There were four divisions at the University: the Faculty of History and Philology, the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, the Law Faculty, the Faculty of Medicine. The total number of students was about most of them commoners.
Professors of Moscow University greatly contributed to the development of secondary education in Russia. New textbooks for secondary schools were compiled by the University professors. University alumni very often taught secondary schools, introducing the most advanced ideas and methods in their work.
In the late XIX century Moscow University contributed to the establishment of a number of museums in Moscow, such as the Polytechnic Museum, the Historical Museum, The Zoological Museum, The Anthropological Museum, The Museum of Fine Arts, the Botanical Gardens and the Zoological Gardens.
The 1863 Charter of Moscow University promoted learning and facilitated the development of education in Russia. But after the assassination of Alexander II in 1881 the government restricted the rights of universities, trying to put the curriculum under their own control, nevertheless, Moscow University remained the centre of science and culture, uniting in the early XIX century such outstanding thinkers and philosophers as V.S.Soloviev, V.V.Rozanov, the Trubetskoi brothers, S.N.Bulgakov, P.A.Florensky.
The democratic spirit and traditions of Moscow University manifested themselves during the first Russian revolution, in 1905 - 1907. The students were against the monarchy, they demanded a republican system of government; many of them joined the fighters in the streets.
Not only students, but also professors of Moscow University kept up its deeply rooted democratic traditions. In 1911 the government unfairly dismissed a number of University professors and instructors, thus flouting the Charter; over 130 professors protested against that by resigning their positions at the University, among them world-known scientists, such as K.A.Timiriazev, P.N.Lebedev, N.D.Zelinsky, N.A.Umov, C.A.Chaplygin, V.I.Vernadsky. As the conflict between the government and the University continued, over a thousand students were expelled, some of them arrested. World war I that started soon led to a further decrease in the number of students.
During the first 150 years of its history Moscow University played the leading role in the development of science and humanities in Russia, being the centre of learning and research. In the late XIX century and early XX century quite a number of Russian scientists and scholars worked there, among them mathematicians N.D.Brashman, N.E.Zhukovsky, N.V.Bugaev, C.A.Chaplygin; physicists and astronomers A.G.Stoletov, F.A.Bredikhin, A.A.Belopolsky, N.A.Umov, P.N.Lebedev, P.K.Sternberg; chemists V.V.Markovnikov, V.F.Luginin, I.A.Kablukov, N.D.Zelinsky, biologists and soil scientists K.F.Rulie, A.I.Filomafitsky, I.M.Setchenov, K.A.Timiriazev, A.N.Severtsov, M.A.Menzbir, A.N.Sabanin, D.N.Prianishnikov; medical doctors M.Ya.Mudrov, F.I.Inozemtsev, N.V.Sklifosovsky, G.A.Zakharin, A.A.Ostroumov, N.V.Filatov, F.F.Erisman, V.F.Snegirev; georgapher and anthropologist D.N.Anutchin; geologists G.Ye.Schurovsky, V.O.Kovalevsky, A.P.Pavlov; geochemist V.I.Vernadsky; historians T.G.Granovsky, N.I.Nadezhdin, M.T.Kachenovsky, M.P.Pogodin, I.D.Belyev, S.M.Soloviev, V.O.Klyuchevsky, V.I.Gerie, N.A.Rozhkov, M.N.Pokrovsky, Yu.V.Gotie; philologists N.S.Tikhonravov, F.I.Buslaev, N.I.Storozhenko, F.F.Fortunatov, F.Ye.Korsh, V.F.Miller, S.K.Shambinago, M.N.Speransky, M.M.Pokrovsky, V.N.Schepkin; lawyers B.N.Chicherin, K.D.Kavelin, M.M.Kovalevsky, P.I.Novgorodtsev; economists I.K.Babst, A.I.Chuprov, I.I.Yanzhul; philosophers Ye.N. and C.N. Trubetskoi and many others.
The Russian revolution of 1917 changed the whole system of higher education. On the one hand, it became more democratic, in the sense that students did not have to pay tuition fees and all of them received grants. In 1919 a preparatory department for young people from the working class was opened at Moscow University. Since 1919 the University was fully financed by the state. Quite a number of well-known scientists worked at the University; at the same time, many others found it difficult to accept the new situation and left. A destructive effect was produced by the attempts to reorganize the University, making some faculties or departments into separate educational institutions for the sake of training more students. There were no lectures and students were to study in teams, 3 to 5 people each, then taking their examinations in teams too. Studying in teams did not prove a success and since 1932 it has never been used again; the University curriculum was changed again, as well as the system of higher education as a whole. University professors compiled new secondary school textbooks and manuals for university students. In 1934 doctoral dissertations were defended at Moscow University for the first time after 1917. By 1941 the total number of full-time students at Moscow University had grown to 5000. Over 30 professors became full members of the Academy of Sciences of USSR.
The political repressions of the 1930s and 1950s negatively affected the development of scientific ideas, as Soviet scientists had virtually no contacts with their colleagues abroad, while certain branches of science were condemned as based on the ideology alien to Communist ideas, and a number of scientists and scholars were sentenced for life imprisonment.
The Great Patriotic War against Fascism was one of the most difficult periods in the history of Russia. The first group of University students and staff joined the army on the third day of fighting. One of the divisions formed out of University volunteers fought heroically defending Moscow.
Moscow University professors, students and staff were evacuated during the war first to Ashkhabad, Turkmenia, then to Sverdlovsk, returning to Moscow in 1943, after the German troops were defeated near the capital. During the war over 3000 specialists were trained at the University; the University scientists continued their research; their contributions to applied science allowed improvements in aircraft development, in the accuracy of artillery fire etc. New explosives were invented, a study of uranium was carried out, a preparation causing blood coagulation was introduced into practice; University geologists discovered a tungsten deposit in Central Asia and new oil wells, University geographers supplied the Red Army with maps and charts. University scholars popularized the ideas patriotism, and University lawyers made their contribution during the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials.
Over 5000 University students, instructors, professors and staff fought in the war, over 1000 were decorated for their heroism, seven became Heroes of the Soviet Union. In 1975 a memorial was erected on campus to honour over 3000 people Moscow University lost during the war.
During the post-war period the leading role of Moscow University in the restoration and further development of the country was fully recognized. There was a fivefold increase in the state funding, the new University campus was built on Vorobievy Gory (Sparrow Hills), where all the lecture halls and laboratories had the latest equipment available at the time.
Starting from the Thaw period that followed Stalin's death the country became more open for contacts, which, together with better funding, allowed to widen the scope of research work conducted by the University scientists. Newly established University divisions included the Institute of Asian and African Languages, the Faculty of Psychology, the Faculty of Computing Mathematics and Cybernetics and the Faculty of Soil Science. A few problem-dedicated scientific laboratories and a computer centre appeared during the same period. The total number of full-time students was constantly growing; thus, it rose from 13,000 in 1953 to 31,000 in 2001. At the same time Moscow University became an international educational centre, with the Faculty for the Russian Language which has been teaching international students since 1959.
In XX century quite a number of renowned scientists and scholars worked at Moscow University, among them mathematicians P.S.Alexandrov, V.V.Golubev, D.F.Yegorov, M.V.Keldysh, A.N.Kolmogorov, N.N.Luzin, I.G.Petrovsky, I.I.Privalov, V.V.Stepanov, O.Yu.Shmidt; physicists V.K.Arkadiev, L.A.Artsimovitch, N.N.Bogoliubov, S.I.Vavilov, V.I.Vexler, A.A.Vlasov, P.L.Kapitsa, I.V.Kurchatov, L.D.Landau, G.S.Landsberg, Ya.B.Zeldovitch, A.S.Predvoditelev, D.V.Skobeltsin, I.E.Tamm, R.V.Khokhlov; chemists A.A.Balandin, I.V.Berezin, S.I.Volfkovitch, Ya.I.Gerasimov, B.A.Kazansky, V.A.Kargin, A.N.Nesmeyanov, A.V.Novoselova, P.I.Rebinder, N.N.Semenov, A.N.Frumkin, N.M.Emanuel; geographers N.N.Baransky, A.A.Borzov, K.K.Markov, V.N.Sukachev, I.S.Schukin; geologists A.D.Arkhangelsky, N.V.Belov, A.A.Bogdanov, A.P.Vinogradov, Yu.A.Orlov, M.M.Filatov, biologists and soil scientists A.N.Belozersky, D.G.Vilensky, L.A.Zenkevitch, N.K.Koltsov, G.V.Nikolsky, A.I.Oparin, N.P.Remezov; historians A.V.Artsikhovsky, B.D.Grekov, A.A.Guber, N.M.Druzhinin, N.I.Konrad, M.V.Netchkina, A.M.Pankratova, S.D.Skazkin, M.N.Tikhomirov, L.V.Cherepnin; art critics V.N.Lazarev, A.A.Fedorov-Davidov; philologists D.D.Blagoi, S.M.Bondi, V.V.Vinogradov, N.K.Gudzi, R.M.Samarin, D.N.Ushakov; philosophers V.F.Asmus, V.P.Volgin, G.Ye.Glezerman, E.B.Ilienkov, B.M.Kedrov; lawyers M.N.Gernet, P.Ye.Orlovsky, A.N.Trainin, psychologists A.N.Leontiev, A.R.Luria, S.L.Rubinshtein; economists L.Ya.Berri, A.Ya.Boyarsky, V.S.Nemchinov, K.V.Ostrovitianov, S.K.Tatur, N.A.Tsagolov and many others.
Since 1917 over 180,000 specialists have graduated from Moscow University and about 35,000 have been awarded doctoral degrees, which confirms the position of Moscow University as a leading centre of learning and science in this country.
In June 1992 the President of the Russian Federation issued a decree, which established the status of Moscow University as a self-governing institution of higher education. In November 1998, after a wide-ranging discussion, the Charter of Moscow University was approved.
The Charter proclaims democracy, openness and self-government to be the main principles in the life of Moscow University; the main goal is freedom to teach and to study as well as to develop oneself as a personality. The basic division within the University is a department (laboratory) whose professors, instructors and staff make decisions collectively.
Moscow State University is a major traditional educational institution in Russia, it offers training in almost all branches of modern science and humanities. Its undergraduates may choose one of 57 qualifications, while doctoral students may specialize in 168 different areas. The total number of MSU students exceeds 40,000; besides, about 10,000 high school students attend various clubs and courses at MSU.
MSU is a centre of research science famous for its major scientific schools. There have been 11 Nobel Prize winners among its professors and alumni, out of 18 Russians who have received the prestigious prize so far. Many more MSU scientists have been awarded various Soviet and Russian prizes for their achievements, among them 60 Lenin Prizes and 120 State Prizes, over 40 MSU scientists having received the State Prizes over the last decade, 6 of them this year.
Among those who teach at MSU there are 2,500 higher doctoral degree holders and almost 6,000 holders of doctoral degrees, almost 1,000 full professors and 2,000 associate professors. The total number of full members and correspondent members of The Russian Academy of Sciences is about 300. About 5,000 scientists and scholars are currently involved in 310 research projects in various fields.
Moscow State University comprises 29 faculties and over 350 departments, 15 research institutes, 4 museums, the Science Park, the Botanical Gardens, The Library, the University Publishing House and printing shop, a recreational centre and a boarding school for talented children. 9 faculties have been recently established, along with 47 new departments and 22 research laboratories. Research has recently started in 30 new interdisciplinary areas. At the moment the University Computer Centre represents more computing power that any other educational institution in Russia. There have been major changes in the curricula, with over 200 new academic programmes added.
The first Russian Science Park appeared at MSU 10 years ago; now it unites about 2,000 scientists who work to make scientific achievements into technological innovations.
From the engineering and operational point of view Moscow University campus, with its 1,000 buildings and structures, 8 dormitories and 300 km of utility lines, is an extremely complex system. Nevertheless, this system is being modernized and developed. According to the plan, approved by the government, a number of new buildings are to be erected in the area adjacent to the campus on Vorobievy Gory. There will be new blocks for a few faculties and research laboratories, a library, a swimming pool, a stadium, a recreation centre, some services. The University clinic and the Main Library Building are being built at the moment, the latter will be opened in January, 2005.
The University's scientific potential creates a unique opportunity for interdisciplinary research and pioneering work in various branches of science. The recent years have been marked by achievements in the fields of high-energy physics, superconductivity, laser technology, mathematics and mechanics, renewable energy sources, biochemistry and biotechnology. In humanities new problems arise while studying various aspects of sociology, economics, history, psychology, philosophy and the history of culture. On average 800 doctoral and 200 higher doctoral degrees in various fields of science and humanities are awarded at MSU every year.
As training highly qualified specialists has always been the main goal, the faculties and departments constantly revise their curricula and introduce new programmes. The stress is on student's ability to work independently and meet employer's requirements. In the curricula for science faculties more classes in the humanities have been included. The University offers individual programmes combining classes at different faculties.
In the first two years undergraduates have two obligatory physical training sessions a week, later they may join one of sports clubs.
The curricula of all MSU faculties are based on the combination of academic instruction with student's research work and the combination of thorough theoretical knowledge with special skills. Having acquired theoretical knowledge in the first and the second year, undergraduates choose an area to specialize in. At the same time they choose a field for their independent research work, joining special seminars; the results of research are usually presented at the meetings of students' scientific societies or at scientific conferences, the most interesting results are published. At the end of the final semester the results of each student's independent research are submitted in the form of final paper, which is publicly presented by the student at the meeting of the department.
The historical, philological, sociological faculties and the faculties of economics, journalism and psychology offer programmes with evening classes; the Faculty of Journalism offers a correspondence degree programme. Undergraduate students complete 5- or 6- year course of study, which varies at different faculties and for different programmes.
The students in most MSU programmes do not pay their tuition but 15% of students whose tuition is not covered by the government funding have to pay fees. Accommodation in MSU dormitories is provided for those students who are not residents of Moscow.
According to the MSU Charter, The MSU Student Board is a form of student government, coordinating various aspects of campus life and activities.
MSU has a long-standing tradition as a centre of retraining admitting up to 5,000 students a year. Highly-qualified professionals update themselves on the latest achievements in various fields of science and humanities, choosing special programmes at one of MSU faculties.
As a centre learning, MSU publishes a wide range of scientific literature, reference books, popular science editions, up to 400 titles and 3,000,000 copies a year, on various aspects of philosophy, psychology, history, economics, law, politics, philology, journalism, mathematics, physics and astronomy, biology, chemistry, geology and geography. The books, published under the title "University Library" include works of well-known philosophers and historians, both ancient and modern, memoirs, classical Russian and European authors. The books published under the title "Physics: ideas, achievements, prospects" are for specialists and for anyone interested in the field. The latest findings of MSU historians are presented in the series " The French Revolution". There is a special series including the works of outstanding Russian philosophers and historians.
MSU library is one of the largest in Russia, with its 9,000,000 books, and the average number of readers 55,000, using 5,500,000 books a year.
MSU collaborates with the International Association of Universities and has links with about 60 educational institutions, centres and unions in Europe, the USA, Japan, China and some other Asian countries, in Australia, Latin America, Arab countries.
Since 1946, when the first international students were admitted, over 11,000 highly qualified specialists from 150 countries have graduated from MSU. Over 2,000 undergraduate and post-graduate students enroll every year, with over 400 students in intensive Russian/University preparation programmes.
Moscow University has well-established contacts with the most distinguished universities in the world, exchanging students and lecturers with the leading universities abroad. Moscow University houses the UNESCO International Demography Courses, the UNESCO Hydrology Courses, the International Biotechnology Centre, The International LASER Centre, courses and seminars on Russian as a foreign language. In 1991 the French University College, the Russian-American University, the Institute of German Science and Culture were opened. MSU has awarded honourary degrees to more than 60 scientists, statesmen and politicians from abroad; in their turn, many prominent University scholars and scientists hold honorary degrees from foreign academies and universities.
In January 2005 Lomonosov Moscow State University celebrates its 250th anniversary. Over 800 various events are planned on the occasion.
All the history of the University is the evidence of the outstanding role its alumni have played promoting the ideas of freedom, common good, humanity, and truth.